Oceanologia No. 62 (1) / 20


Original research article

Short communication

Original research article

Hydrogeochemistry and magnitude of SGD in the Bay of Puck, southern Baltic Sea
Oceanologia 2020, 62(1), 1-11

Żaneta Kłostowska1, Beata Szymczycha1,*, Monika Lengier1, Dorota Zarzeczańska2, Lidia Dzierzbicka-Głowacka1
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: beat.sz@iopan.gda.pl
2Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland
*corresponding author

keywords: Subterranean estuary, Groundwater discharge, Macro ions

Received 2 July 2019, Accepted 12 September 2019, Available online 26 September 2019.


This work reports the hydrogeochemistry of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in the Bay of Puck, southern Baltic Sea. To understand the seasonal and spatial variability of SGD, groundwater and seawater-based SGD samples were collected in several sites in November 2017, March 2018, May 2018 and July 2018. Additionally, a vertical, one-dimensional, advection-diffusion model was used to estimate SGD in each site. The obtained results ranged from to 1.8 × 10−7 L cm−2 s 1 to 2.8 × 10−7 L cm2 s 1 and depended on both: short-timescale factors (wind direction and monthly precipitation) and long-timescale factors (total precipitation and large-scale sea level variations). The calculated rates were further extrapolated to the entire Bay of Puck and ranged from 16.0 m3 s 1 to 127.7 m3 s−1. The estimated SGD fluxes were significantly higher than results including only the freshwater component of SGD. In the Baltic Sea the importance of SGD, as a source of water and accompanying chemical substances, is still neglected, however, the present findings indicate that locally SGD can be higher than rivers runoff.
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Grain-size characteristics and net transport patterns of surficial sediments in the Zhejiang nearshore area, East China Sea
Oceanologia 2020, 62(1), 12-22

Juan Liang1,2,*, Jian Liu3,4, Gang Xu3,4, Bin Chen3,4
1School of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China;
e-mail: ljzjou@163.com
2School of Marine Science and Technology, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, China
3Key Laboratory of Marine Hydrocarbon Resources and Environmental Geology, Ministry of Land and Resources, Qingdao, China
4Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology, Qingdao, China
*corresponding author

keywords: Grain-size trend analysis, Sediment transport, Sedimentary rate, Zhejiang nearshore area

Received 11 January 2019, Accepted 20 June 2019, Available online 10 July 2019.


Spatial variations in grain-size parameters can reflect sediment transport patterns and depositional dynamic environments. Therefore, 616 surficial sediment samples taken from the Zhejiang nearshore area in the East China Sea were analyzed to better understand the net sediment transport pattern in this region. The study area is generally dominated by clayey silt and has relatively coarse mud sediment in the southeast. The sorting coefficient of surface sediment is higher than 1.4, and sediment is poorly sorted throughout the study area. The skewness has a strong correlation with the mean grain-size diameter. The net sediment transport pathways obtained by the grain-size trend analysis indicate several distinct characteristics of the surficial sediment transport. The sediment is transported southward under the action of the stronger southward Zhejiang–Fujian Coastal Current (ZMCC) in winter in the upper part of the nearshore area. Influenced by the obstruction of the Taiwan Warm Current (TWC) and the tidal current, surficial sediment transport vectors display two areas of grain-size trend convergence and indicate the net deposition environment has a high sedimentation rate. However, the transport is mainly toward the north under the control of the prevailing northward ZMCC and the strong TWC in the summer. The sedimentary rate is closely related to the processes of the sediment transport. On the one hand, sediment transportation affects the depositional rate in a different environment. On the other hand, the modern sedimentary rate can reflect indirectly the sediment source and sediment transportation.
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Extreme wind waves in the Black Sea
Oceanologia 2020, 62(1), 23-30

Boris V. Divinsky1,*, Vladimir V. Fomin2, Ruben D. Kosyan1, Yuri D. Ratner2
1Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia;
e-mail: divin@ocean.ru
2Marine Hydrophysical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Sevastopol, Russia
*corresponding author

keywords: Wind waves, Swell, Wave climate, Black Sea, Numerical modeling, Return period

Received 9 January 2019, Accepted 28 June 2019, Available online 12 July 2019.


Results of the analysis of a long-term data set, including fields of significant wave heights of the surface wave components, and mixed (total) wave field in the Black Sea are presented. The data set was collected on the basis of retrospective calculations using the MIKE 21 SW spectral wave model with the atmospheric forcing based on the ERA-Interim data in the period from 1979 to 2017. A criterion is used to isolate the swell waves from the initial wave data set that takes into account the wave age. We used the experimental data to develop a regression relationship showing that the maximum possible wave height can exceed the significant wave height approximately one and a half times. Analysis of the spatial distribution of wave heights in the Black Sea suggests that a possibility exists that significant wave height of storm waves can be as high as ∼12 m. This result indicates that the actual heights of maximum waves in the Black Sea can reach 18–19 m. Three regions are distinguished on the basis of the wave potential. The times of manifestation of extreme situations in these regions are different: in the southwestern part of the sea, extreme storm situations occur, as a rule, in December–January; in the region south of the Crimea Peninsula this happens in February; in the northeastern part of the sea they occur in November. It was also found that the south-southeastern and eastern parts of the sea are most affected by swell.
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Geochemical fractionation of heavy metals in sediments of the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia
Oceanologia 2020, 62(1), 31-44

Bandar A. Al-Mur*
Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia;
e-mail: Balmur@kau.edu.sa
*corresponding author

keywords: Heavy metal, Speciation, Bioavailability, Sediments, Jeddah

Received 3 March 2019, Accepted 28 July 2019, Available online 21 August 2019.


The geochemical fractionation of heavy metals, including Mn, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Ni, collected from the surface sediments of the Jeddah coastal zone of the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia was determined using a sequential extraction technique. The data obtained from the five fractions indicated that the concentration of metals varies among different locations in the study area. The total metal concentrations (%) in the exchangeable (F1), carbonate (F2), reducible (F3) and organic-bound (F4) fractions were measured to determine the mobility of each studied metal. The sum of the two fractions F3 and F4 represented 70% of the Cu, 72% of the Zn and 36% of the Pb. However, the sum of the three fractions F2, F3 and F4 represented 76%, 74%, 68% and 58% of the Cd, Ni, Fe and Mn, respectively. Approximately 46% of the total copper was related to organics, which could reflect a high mobility of copper in these sediments. The maximum mobility of metals in the sediments was confirmed by the bioavailability factor (BF), which was within the ranges of 0.47–0.93, 0.34–0.92, 0.62–0.95, 0.69–0.95, 0.24–0.82, 0.54–0.98, and 0.60–0.95 for Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, and Ni, respectively. Based on the BF, the metals exhibited the following order: Cu ≈ Zn > Cd ≈ Ni ≈ Fe > Mn > Pb. The high levels of BF for the studied metals could reflect the potential for toxic metals to be easily released into the marine environment. The risk assessment code for Cd showed a medium risk in five sediment samples of the northern and southern regions and a high risk to the aquatic environment in the other sediment samples. However, the speciation of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni in the studied sediments exhibited low to medium risks to the aquatic environment.
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Evaluation of morphodynamics of Miani Hor, a coastal lagoon of Lasbela, Balochistan, Pakistan
Oceanologia 2020, 62(1), 45-55

Naeem Ahmed Syed1,*, Tahira Siddiqa1, Niamatullah Sohoo2,*
1Nusrat Jahan College, Rabwah, Chenab Nagar, Chinniot, Pakistan;
e-mail: dr.naeem@njc.edu.pk, dr.naeem@njc.edu.pk
2National Institute of Oceanography, Clifton, Karachi, Pakistan;
e-mail: dr.naeem@njc.edu.pk
*corresponding author

keywords: Coastal water body, Lagoon, Tidal constituents, Inlet dynamics

Received 11 January 2019, Accepted 29 July 2019, Available online 17 August 2019.


We investigated air-sea carbon dioxide (CO2) transfer in situ to determine the role of wind and turbulence in forcing gas transfer. In situ gas transfer velocities of CO2 were measured with a floating chamber technique along the Norwegian coast and inside the Sogne- and Trondheimsfjord. Gas transfer velocities were related to wind speed and turbulence, but neither wind speed nor turbulence can satisfactorily predict gas transfer velocity. However, comparison to existing wind-based parameterizations showed that the data from this study have a similar trend. Generally, we measured higher transfer velocities than the parameterizations predict. In the North Atlantic, we measured transfer velocities of up to 54.9 cm h−1 versus predicted transfer velocities of 6.3 cm h−1 at a wind speed of 3.7 m s−1. In addition, we observed that measurements of transfer velocities at wind speeds below 4 m s−1 are higher than predictions. Wind-based parameterizations are lacking data in the low wind regime for validation, and we provide 25 data points for this critical wind speed range. Overall, results indicate that Norwegian fjords and the adjacent North Atlantic are sinks for atmospheric CO2 during summer, with uptake rates of −9.6 ± 7.6 μmol m−2 min−1 and −4.1 ± 1.7 μmol m−2 min−1, respectively. Due to the low partial pressure of CO2 in the upper water layer of the stratified fjords (down to 150.7 μatm), the Sogne- and Trondheimsfjord absorb 196 tons of carbon per day during the summer.
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Evaluation of the carbon sequestration capacity of arid mangroves along nutrient availability and salinity gradients along the Red Sea coastline of Saudi Arabia
Oceanologia 2020, 62(1), 56-69

Kamal H. Shaltout1, Mohamed T. Ahmed1,2, Sulaiman A. Alrumman2, Dalia A. Ahmed1, Ebrahem M. Eid2,*
1Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt
2Biology Department, College of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia;
e-mail: ebrahem.eid@sci.kfs.edu.eg, eeid@kku.edu.sa, ebrahem.eid@gmail.com
*corresponding author

keywords: Carbon sequestration, Coastal wetlands, Mangroves, Red Sea, Saudi Arabia, Climate change

Received 24 April 2019, Accepted 22 August 2019, Available online 12 September 2019.


In the present work, we assessed the carbon sequestration capacity of mangrove forests (Avicennia marina) in relation to nutrient availability and salinity gradients along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. This was achieved through estimating the sediment bulk density (SBD), sediment organic carbon (SOC) concentration, SOC density, SOC pool, carbon sequestration rate (CSR) and carbon sequestration potential (CSP). The present study was conducted at 3 locations (northern, middle and southern), using 7 sites and 21 stands of mangrove forests (A. marina) along ∼1134 km of the Red Sea coastline of Saudi Arabia (from Duba in the north to Jazan in the south), all of which are in an arid climate. The correlation coefficients between the water characteristics and the first two Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) axes indicated that the separation of the sediment parameters along the first axis were positively influenced by TDS (total dissolved solids) and EC (electric conductivity) and were negatively influenced by total N and total P. On the other hand, the second axis was negatively correlated with total N, total P, EC and TDS. The SOC pools at the northern (10.5 kg C m−2) and southern locations (10.4 kg C m−2) were significantly higher than the SOC pool at the middle location (6.7 kg C m−2). In addition, the average CSR of the northern (5.9 g C m−2 yr−1) and southern locations (6.0 g C m−2 yr−1) were significantly higher than they were in the middle location (5.0 g C m−2 yr−1).
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Dependence of acoustic noise emission on the dissipated energy of plunging waves
Oceanologia 2020, 62(1), 70-82

Zygmunt Klusek1,*, Maciej Paprota2, Wojciech Sulisz2, Aneta Zdolska2, Sebastian Sorek2
1Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland;
e-mail: klusek@iopan.gda.pl
2Institute of Hydro-Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Gdańsk, Poland
*corresponding author

keywords: Wave breaking, Wave energy dissipation, Underwater noise

Received 13 December 2018, Accepted 21 August 2019, Available online 6 September 2019.


The results of experiments performed in a wave flume designed to explore associations between the dissipation of surface wave energy during breaking and acoustic noise emission are presented. The experiments were carried out using tap water in the wave laboratory of the Institute of Hydro-Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Gdańsk, Poland. In particular, being shown are the parameters of empirical dependency between the dissipated wave energy during plunging and the energy of pre-breaking wave trains. Relationships between wave energy losses in the case of breakers with an amplitude of about 10 cm and the noise acoustic energy in the frequency band from 80 to 12,500 Hz were estimated. Taking into consideration the phenomena of reverberations and propagation in an acoustical waveguide, a numerical model was used for the correction of the observed noise's acoustic spectra. A detailed analysis of the factors affecting the noise level in the semi-enclosed volume allowed us to specify the rate of conversion of the wave energy dissipated during breaking into acoustic energy, which was found to be in the order of 10−8.

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Natural and anthropogenic factors influencing abundance of the benthic macrofauna along the shelf and slope of the Gulf of Guinea, a large marine ecosystem off West Africa
Oceanologia 2020, 62(1), 83-100

Krzysztof Pabis1,*, Robert Sobczyk1, Jacek Siciński1, Tor Ensrud2, Bjorn Serigstadt2
1Laboratory of Polar Biology and Oceanobiology, University of Łódź, Poland;
e-mail: cataclysta@wp.pl
2Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway
*corresponding author

keywords: Ghana, Continental margin, Distribution patterns, Oil excavation, Disturbance

Received 29 March 2019, Accepted 29 August 2019, Available online 14 September 2019.


The West African continental margin belongs to the least known areas in terms of the ecology of benthic ecosystems. At the same time, this region is influenced by various threats associated with human activities, including industrialisation and oil excavation. Here, we analyse the abundance and distribution patterns of macrozoobenthic communities along the coast of Ghana. The material was collected in 2012 on nine transects at depths ranging from 25 to 1000 m. Over 200 quantitative samples were collected using a 0.1-m2 van Veen grab. Generally, the mean density of macrozoobenthos decreased gradually from the shallow zone (25 m: 231.4 ± 262.2 ind./0.1 m2) down to bathyal depths (1000 m: 55.4 ± 51.4 ind./0.1 m2), but we observed intermediate scale variability in distribution patterns among the transects along the Ghanaian coast. Analysis of environmental factors showed no evidence of substantial pollution, although levels of hydrocarbons, barium and some other toxic metals show some local increases at particular stations, especially on the continental slope. Cluster analysis based on Bray–Curtis similarity and abundance of higher taxonomic groups of macrofauna yielded five groups of stations, while SIMPER analysis demonstrated that polychaetes and amphipods contributed most significantly to within-group similarity. Canonical Correspondence Analysis demonstrated that PAH, THC and toxic metal levels (Ba, Cd, Pb), as well as oxygen concentration, were the most important factors structuring benthic communities.
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Factors regulating the compositions and distributions of dissolved organic matter in the estuaries of Jiaozhou Bay in North China
Oceanologia 2020, 62(1), 101-110

Jiaojie Hu1,2, Li Zou1,3,*, Jian Wang2,*, Qianqian Ren3, Bin Xia4, Ge Yu1,3
1College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China;
e-mail: zouli@ouc.edu.cn
2SGS-CSTC Standards Technical Services (Qingdao) Co., Ltd., Qingdao, China;
e-mail: jian.wang@sgs.com
3Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science and Ecology, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China
4Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao, China
*corresponding author

keywords: Estuaries in Jiaozhou Bay, Dissolved organic matter, CDOM, Carbohydrates, Amino acids

Received 18 March 2019, Accepted 16 September 2019, Available online 30 September 2019.


Water samples collected from the Jiaozhou Bay every two months between April 2016 and February 2017 were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), total dissolved carbohydrates (TCHO), total hydrolyzed amino acids (THAA), and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) to explore the biogeochemical processes of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in anthropogenic estuarine and coastal environments. In addition, nutrients, chlorophyll a and COD (chemical oxygen demand) in these samples were also analyzed. All parameters exhibited temporal and spatial variations: POC 0.13–22.40 mg/L (average 1.75 mg/L), DOC 0.98–32.75 mg/L (average 5.04 mg/L), COD 0.23–7.58 mg/L (average 1.67 mg/L), TCHO 0.34–14.09 µM (average 3.18 µM), THAA 0.89–8.30 µM (average 4.04 µM), and the absorption coefficient a(355) of CDOM 0.23–16.35 m 1 (average 3.09 m−1). The temporal and spatial variations in the concentrations of TCHO, THAA, and DOC implied that the DOM in the study areas had a relatively higher biochemical activity. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and maximal information coefficient (MIC) revealed that seasonal variations in temperature and the phosphate concentration were the dominant factors regulating the DOM distributions in Jiaozhou Bay, while riverine inputs and in situ reproduction mainly controlled the DOM compositions.
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Short communication

A new record of the invasive blue crab (Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896) and his parasite from the Baltic basin"
Oceanologia 2020, 62(1), 111-115

Przemysław Czerniejewski, Natalia Kasowska, Angelika Linowska*, Agnieszka Rybczyk
Department of Marine Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway;
e-mail: dag.myrhaug@ntnu.no
*corresponding author

keywords: Blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, Alien species, Spread, Poland, Parasite, Trichodina sp.

Received 19 February 2019, Accepted 27 June 2019, Available online 12 July 2019.


A specimen of the invasive Callinectes sapidus was recently found in the catchment basin of the Baltic Sea (Lake Dąbie, Poland). The discovery is significant because it indicates a widening of the crab's biogeographic range in northern Europe and confirms its expansion along European estuaries. The captured juvenile specimen from Lake Dąbie (estuary of the Oder River) had a carapace width (CW) of 125.58 mm, carapace length (CL) of 53.23 mm, and weight (w) of 100.19 g. This is the first record of this species in this part of the Baltic Sea catchment basin, following the discovery of a female caught in a plaice net northeast of Copenhagen (1951) and an adult male caught off Skagen, Northern Jutland, between the Kattegat and the Skagerrak (2007).
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